Farm / CCC Camp S-51-PA Co.329/ Pine Grove Prisoner of War Camp / Church Camp
Page author: Lee Schaeffer -- My Home Page
E-mail me if you would like a free CD with all my full size pictures, maps and other documents about the camp.
The old church camp sign from the intersection of Pine Grove Road and Michaux Road.
The church camp sign survived in the Carlisle Presbytery office and is now at the CCHS in Carlisle.
"Recently cleaning out my basement I found one of my old Camp Michaux tee shirts from more than 50 years ago." Charles W. Bostian
Directions for finding the camp.
In Memory of
Latest News Updates From Dave Smith
Camp Michaux Recognition and Development
Cumberland County Historical SocietySelf-guided Walking Tour of Camp Michaux.
The new version includes the 1945 detailed map of the camp and also includes the optional tour to the water tanks.
Next Camp Michaux Walking Tour
Dates: April 12, 2014
Venue: Cumberland County Historical Society
Category: Recurring Events
Time: 1:00 PM
Location: Pine Grove Furnace State Park
Address: 1100 Pine Grove Road, Gardners, PA 17324
Phone: 717-249-7610 Visit Website Send Email for reservations
See Karl Smith's Poster about the camp
Very nice YouTube Video about the camp
New Pictures of Early CCC Camp
From Judy Hoffman Huntingdon, PA Feb 2, 2012
"My dad was Kenneth Pyles who was a resident of Shade Gap, PA, at the time he joined the camp."
Dinning Hall, barracks and log cabins at the tree line.
Kenneth Pyles is on the left in these pictures.
PA Archives Film About CCC Camp Life. - YouTube Video
Gettysburg Newspaper - July 8, 1933
Clipping found by Vince Montano
On Saturday, July 16, 2011 the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission together with Cumberland County Historical Society and Michaux State Forest dedicated an official State Historical Marker commemorating the Pine Grove Furnace Prisoner of War Interrogation Camp, 1943 – 1945.
Dave Smith -- John Bland
The area around the Old Stone Barn had been cleared for trees and brush which has regrown as shown below.
4/4/2011 FYI: Folks from the PA DCNR and even PHMC have taken a more active interest in the crumbling barn wall. They have installed a simple split-rail fence as a passive safety barrier around the structure and added a new parking lot. Further action to try to prevent the stone wall from collapse is under discussion, but may be rather costly. As a first step toward possible work towards saving the structure from the ravages of gravity and time -- the 3 pine trees in front are now gone, as is much of the brush and smaller trees around the rear/interior of the barn. -- Andre
See more detailed photos of barn by Andre Weltman
October 2012 - Source
Work day at Camp Michaux - Pictures and Text
Zion Arendtsville United Church of Christ
A new Bridge to Nowhere
Vince Montano April, 2013
Saturday after camp cleanup day I wandered peacefully through the camp and made a new discovery. At least it is for me. I have never heard it mentioned before. Hidden in the trees under pine needles and leaves is a concrete footbridge with the name Youtz-Bridge embedded along the top with stones.
In "The History of Camp Michaux", written circa 1964 by Helen Louise McAdoo, a student at Carlisle High School, she writes that,
"German words and names are embedded in concrete steps and bridges that the war prisoners constructed throughout the camp."
I have always been intrigued by her plural use of the word bridges, since the only bridge we know about is the one over Tom's Run on Michaux Rd.
Some checking on the name Youtz reveals it to be an Americanized spelling of the name Jutz, of German origin.
It might be a long-shot, but wouldn't it be something if that name appears in the registry of prisoners?
To find the footbridge, follow the trail behind the CCC Education Building and across the bathhouse. Step off the bathhouse, leave the trail and continue southwest toward Tom's Run. The footbridge is in the woods and is not over water. Clearing it off revealed no other names.
Recently we found several items in the camp that I'm very excited about. . Around the church camp girl's dorm were a girl's hair clip and makeup compact case. Near a guard barrack we found a 1947 penny and 1945 silver nickel.
We found a retractable bakelite pencil with eraser compartment and perpetual calendar. An advertisement for Sigler's Poultry Farm in York, PA with "Ready-To-Cook Chickens And Turkeys" lists a 4-digit phone number. I'm still researching to try and place the time period. 4-digit phone numbers for York were used through the 1930's and 40's. Info on Sigler's has been non-existent and may require a trip to the York County Heritage Trust. Intriguing that a retractable pencil lay just outside the CCC Education Building where the men took classes.
We found a vintage Ipana toothpaste tube which reads "FOR CLEANING THE TEETH AND MASSAGING THE GUMS". When cleaned it revealed a bright red and yellow design. After researching vintage ads from the 30's through the 60's, I learned that Ipana's maker, Bristol Myers, modified the design every few years. What's neat about this piece is that the years that Bristol Myers design most closely matches ours is exactly 1943 through 1945. And we found it right outside the back doorstep of a guard barrack.
Lastly and coolest of all is a steel donut-hole button displaying two stars and "U.S. ARMY". After some checking it appears that during WWII this button was used on U.S. Army Chino Khaki Pants as well as on denim work cloths worn by prisoners. Two photos show our button and one in pristine condition.
From David Smith: He has completed the prisoner database and now we have information on Lt. Momberg whose name ins inscribed on the Tom's Run bridge, and Erich John whose name is on the Deer Lodge farm house
See more details.
Lt. Wilhelm Momberg,
Classified as a Nazi with the same PW # as he inscribed on the bridge left PGF on 7?/13/1945
to travel to Camp Dermott POW camp - this is the camp most PW officers were sent when they left PGF.
East side of Michaux Road bridge over Tom's Run just before camp entrance .
25. 5. Prisoner of war ?????
1945 31 G 25 ? 205
PW# 31G-242097 left PGF on 7/19/1945 for Ft. Meade POW Internment Camp.
This is the location most of the NCOs were sent if they were classified as a Nazi which John was.
Film footage from Pennsylvania CCC camps that includes the Pine Grove Furnace Camp S-51-PA is now available online at the
Pennsylvania State Archives website.
Select CCC #1 (Civilian Conservation Corps) circa 1935, Running time of 8:40.
Pine Grove Furnace appears at runtime 2:42 with Company 329 building a road and CCC officers smoking pipes.
At 6:34 telephone poles are being built in the same location.
Interesting to note, at runtime 3:23 is a Pennsylvania keystone displayed in another camp like the one recently discovered at Pine Grove.
PA Archives Film About CCC Camp Life. - YouTube Video
July 16, 2011 It was a great day and dedication at the camp. I was doing some snooping around some of the newly cleared foundations, and I can't believe what I found! At the west entrance to the CCC Education (#17) Building, there seemed to be an odd-shaped concrete step under the debris with recessed squares similar to those on the POW Marker. When we cleared everything off it took shape and we realized it was the Pennsylvania Keystone symbol! We took a picture with one of us in it so you can compare size... it's actually quite large. My guess is this was most likely placed there by the CCC. Wow! What a cool way to end the day!
I followed a hunch I've had since November about a floor in the Non-Comm Officers cabin. We discovered the floor in great shape, obviously the bathroom with toilet on the east side, bathtub on the other and sink drain. In a forest setting that's almost completely monotone brown, it's really quite a sight to see the bright colors of red, white, light blue, and yellow jumping out at you. A vivid reminder of the life that was here. Any ideas from anyone on how old (or how new) the floor might be? It looks 50's or 60's to me, but that's only a guess.
According to one home improvement website, "Vinyl floor tiles were developed after World War II. Laminate flooring, also called linoleum, was available in large sheets before that time. There was a need for an easier method than lying down and gluing large vinyl flooring sheets and so small square tiles were invented."
Perhaps one confirmation that the tiles were placed during church camp.
I know what you guys are thinking...what did I dig up? I never touched the ground for this one. Once last year I was looking at the POW marker with the light low in the sky during sunset, and noticed that the casting shadow allowed you to see everything much more clearly. So late yesterday I tried something and discovered that one of the best ways to view the marker may be in the dark! Using a flashlight cast at low angles revealed something I never noticed before.
At the very top-center above the word "SERVICE" is The Great Seal of The United States. The eagle's wings, ribbon in it's mouth, the circle above it that would contain the 13 stars, and arrows & olive branch in it's talons become visible. It isn't perfect, but if you look at the back of a one dollar bill you get the idea. Have any of you noticed this before? It never became visible at all to me until last evening.
Vince Montano & John Bland by Old Barn Wall on cleanup day.
Latest Interesting Links and Finds
CAMP WALKING TOURS
Saturday, April 11, 2009 1 p.m. walk
David Smith, former CCHS librarian, leads his popular rain or shine walking tours starting at the iron furnace at Pine Grove Furnace State Park.
Next Walk: _____________
To register for the next walking tour contact the Society at 717-249-7610.
Sturdy shoes should be worn, long pants are recommended and only those capable of walking for 2 hours over rough terrain should attend.
Cost: $8.00 for CCHS members and $12.00 for non-members.
Fees may be paid on the day of the tour which will be held rain or shine.
Walkers should meet at Pine Grove Furnace State Park at the Furnace Stack
10 minutes prior to the beginning of the walk.
Self-guided Walking Tour of Camp Michaux.
Call (717) 249-7610 for more information
Page of pictures and text from the 2006 walk.
160 new pictures on my CD of Camp Michaux pictures.
German POWs on the American Homefront
The Book About Camp Michaux
"SECRET WAR AT HOME"
The Pine Grove Furnace Prisoner of War Interrogation Camp
by John Paul Bland
Book has been reprinted. Get your copy while they last!
Members: $19.80 + 1.19 PA tax + 4.00 S/H - $24.99 total
Non Members: $22.00 + 1.32 PA tax +4.00 S/H - $27.32 total
(Great book that has some of my pictures! )
John Bland - the author of The Secret War at Home... has moved to Texas. Before leaving, he turned all his files over to the Historical Society. Dave Smith is continuing a project begun by John Bland to create a database of all the prisoners who passed through Pine Grove Furnace POW Interrogation Camp between May of 1943 and the end of 1945. At present, effective July 15, 1945, the list contains 7,400 German names. I suspect that by the time the list is completed with the remaining German names and the additional Japanese prisoners that came in that fall, there will be over 8000 names in the database.
The POW database is completed. Following a careful review of the database requiring the combining of more that 300 entries that were partial records of the same prisoner, the results are as follows:
AUTHORS NOTES about the Web page:
Many places and events of minor historical importance that pre-date the World Wide Web are not on-line! The exceptions to this rule are those pages created as labors of love such as this and my other page for another unknown place - Jackson Falls.
In 2001, while creating the church camp links (now defunct) on the Beulah Presbyterian Church Web site, I added Pine Springs Camp. It was here that I began my church camping experience in 1951 and attended every year till 1959 when I was a counselor. I was surprised to find pictures of both my father and myself on their 1954 Memory Lane page! I'm the dorky kid with glasses on the right edge of this picture and my father is third from the right in the back row. I then began a fruitless Web search for information about another special place of my youth - Camp Michaux. Finding nothing at that time was the inspiration for creating this page!
I first saw this region of Pennsylvania in the 1950s as a grade schooler attending Wilson College for women in Chambersburg. Not as their first male student but as a preacher's kid at a summer church conferences with my parents. It was there that I begin learning the art of canoeing. In the summers of 1959 and 1960, I was a delegate from Blairsville Presbyterian Church to the Synod of the Trinity's
Youth Leadership Conference held at Camp Michaux. In 1961, during a brief interlude between high school, my first job and college, I was invited to return again as an ex-officio delegate with no responsibilities other than to make friends and take pictures.
Color prints were expensive so I was saving money by shooting color slide film. Very few people were into slides back then, so mine may be some of the few that exist. I used some cheep ANSCO film and it has faded but the KODAK slides still look good.
If you would like to see all my old slides as full screen images, I would be delighted to send them on a CD along with the current pictures from the camp walks and other documents about the camp. Send me your address and I'll drop you one in the mail.
Then as now, the Appalachian Trail (AT) passes through the camp and it was here that I first hiked on it in 1959. After graduating from Monmouth College in 1965, I began my career teaching the Physics at Churchill High School (now Woodland Hills after a merger.) Before I was married, I was the leader of the Explorer Scout Post at Beulah Presbyterian Church. In the summer of 1966, we were driven to Caledonia State Park and from their hiked the AT north. I made a short detour to revisit Camp Michaux on our way to the Camp Grounds at Pine Grove Furnace State Park.
"The Ash Grove" is everyone's favorite camp but its meaning only becomes clear with age. I still recall fond memories of these mountains and the friendships they once nurtured. So, forty years later in 2001, I made an attempt to go back to the past in spite of Thomas Wolfe's admonition that "You Can't Go Home Again." After all those years, I was still able to find this place. We exchanged e-mail addresses with a hiker on the AT near the camp and she contacted a friend who sent me a copy of the ACHS article about the POW camp.
In May of 2002, I returned to the camp for a Cumberland Co. Historical Walking Tour of the camp. Much of this page is based on the information gathered on that walk. While I was at the park office, I obtained a copy of “A History of Camp Michaux” by M.S. Reifsnyder. (View in HTML format or download as Microsoft Word Rich Text with other information.) I have converted a Site Survey Summery Sheet from a hazardous waste site clean up document that gives a detailed history of the POW camp. I recently received another “A History of Camp Michaux” buy Helen Louise McAdoo. (see note from her brother) As with any research project, you find more questions than answers so I need to go back in the winter when the leaves are off the trees and make some accurate measurements!
I just could not stay away and returned again for the 2003 walk. It rained the day before and by the end of the walk we were all cold and wet! But I did get a lot of detailed pictures with my new digital camera which I will be glad to share with you on a CD. Because of the weather, I didn't fulfill my prime objectives to hike up to "Vesper Hill" and back the lower service road to see the remains of the camp buildings. Perhaps next year...
In June, 2003, my wife and I traveled to Europe. While on our cruse of the Rhine River, we met a German gentleman who's U-boat crew was captured off France and he was interred at a camp near Tampa Bay. His captain was also interned in the US but he did not know where...
On our way to a short vacation in the Poconos in July, we planed our route to visit the UCC Hartman Conference Center in Milroy, PA. In the living room of the Michaux Lodge are four POW paintings from Camp Michaux. The camp director, Rev. Bruce Druckenmiller, assisted me in taking digital photographs of the paintings which are displayed below. We returned on the picturesque US Route 6 to see the Pennsylvania Grand Canyon, in Potter County we visited the Pennsylvania Lumber Museum. At the visitors center, they have an extensive display celebrating the history of the CCC camps in Pennsylvania.
In June of 2004, I attended the first "reunion" of former staff and campers and was able to make copies of their extensive collection of photographs which are available on my CD. We also met with Lisa John, a park ranger, who has an interesting collection of pictures and is planning a brochure and interpretive walking trail if the forest service will give her permission.
November 2006 was cool and damp but when the leaves have fallen is the best time to see the camp so I had to go back for yet another camp walk and finally found the remains of Vesper Hill! I've put that information on another page - 2006 Camp Walking Tour
While researching the camp, I ran across several references to Kings Gap. I had briefly looked at their Web site but did not study it in depth until I was contacted by their new archivist. The place seemed like an interesting place to visit and there is speculation that several of the highest priority POWs from Camp Pine Grove might have been housed there but no evidence to support the claim. It appears that it was still in private hands during the war. In July of 2007, my wife and I visited the Kings Gap Environmental Education and Training Center. The front porch of the mansion offers a spectacular view of the Cumberland Valley.
For some strange reason, I drove four hours in the rain to attend the 2009 camp walk. The rain stopped as we entered the camp ground and the sun came out for the afternoon walk. It seemed as though every walker had a different interest in the camp. Several complained that it took too much ink to print out this page before they came! :-)
If your Web wanderings have lead you here, please add your memories via e-mail or just let me know how you found your way here!
Let me know if I can use your name and e-mail on this page.
At around 200 hits/month from all over the world, I should be getting more mail!
Thanks to all the people who have found this page and have e-mailed me pictures and information from their collections. If you have e-mailed me and changed your address, please let me know.
--- Lee Schaeffer - Home Page - E-mail
P.S. I also spent many weeks at BSA Camp Seph Mack from 54-62 as a camper and as staff teaching Pioneering, Map Reading rowing (which later saved my life) and Morse Code. I also attended the National Jamborees in 1957 at Valley Forge, PA and 1960 at Silver Springs, CO - but that's all for another page! As an Explorer Post leader, I brought a group of scouts through the camp in 1966 while hiking the Appalachian Trail.
Maybe Wolfe was right!
On July 30, 2001, my wife Judy and I spent the afternoon locating the remnants of the camp off Michaux Road about two miles south of Pine Grove Furnace State Park on SR 233. On the maps, you can see all the mountain roads and the camp's location relative to Pine Grove Furnace. The camp is located in Cooke Township.
The white clearing on the 2002 NGS
topo map is the site of the camp. Michaux Road is the main
road running N/S. The Upper, Main and Lower Service roads are have
gates off Michaux Road and are easy to find. The red dashed line
is the Appalachian Trail.
MAPS, GPS and Arial Views
The older aerial images show the area before it was totally overgrown. The best source for these maps is Google Earth. Put 40.0379 -77.3404 in the search box. On the menu bar at the top of the map, select the very small CLOCK icon to see the older maps by date. The 3/31/2007 map was taken in winter and shows the best contrast between the CCC/Army trees and the overgrowth.
Landmarks on Michaux Road
Where the paved portion of Michaux Road ends about 100 yd. past Bunkerhill Road and the old stone barn parking lot, you will find a yellow metal gate on the left which is the entrance to the "Upper Service road." The yellow gate south of the Toms Run bridge is the "Lower Service Road."
See Karl Smith's Poster about the camp
by Dave Smith
Camp Michaux Youth Fellowship
Military POW Camp Buildings - 2007
SITE SURVEY SUMMARY SHEET
Special thanks to Mr. David Smith for his
"Camp Walks" and other information from the
archives of the The
Cumberland County Historical Society
Photos By Others
A Short History
If you are in the area, visit Kings Gap State Park north of Camp Michaux. It has a wonderful view of the area from the summit of South Mountain. It was another area devoted to the manufacture of charcoal. "The camp at Huntsdale Pennsylvania, USA was on what is now the C H Masland estate - Kings Gap. The camps existence was kept relatively secret during the war, and there was little know about it by the locals. It was located in proximity to Camp Michaux, but was not a part of that base. The camp was primarily used to house high ranking prisoners in relative comfort, in order get information from them." Wikipedia
short History of the CCC
After the war in 1946, the Presbyterian, UCC and E&R churches converted the area into a summer camp. They removed some of the buildings, barracks, stockade and eventually added a swimming pool and pavilion.
What remains of the camp
North of the dining hall are the remains of the final swimming pool built in 1954. Above the pool, you can still find the paved floor of the "pavilion" and north west of that, under some bushes are "The Steps to Nowhere" and the upper parking lot which is now a bird banding sanctuary. Watch the poison ivy patch! It may be easier to find these from the upper service road.
On your visit, try to locate the
See Map Below
Map Keys used on this page
A few feet further up Michaux Road on the right, there is the "white blaze" where the AT cuts off from Michaux Road and cuts across to join Bunkerhill Road past the parking area. The foundations for one of the guard towers can be seen at this corner.
Between the upper and lower gates and set back off the camp side of Michaux road is a commemorative marker for the first CCC Camp S-51 329 Co. in Pennsylvania. "S" designates the camp is in a state forest. By the early 1900's the demand for charcoal for the Pine Grove Furnace had virtually cleared the mountains of trees. The CCC reforested and restored the area.
With Camp Landmarks
The 1994 USGA
Arial photograph (topo
map) shows the camp abandoned but
recognizable before it was totally overgrown. The clearing
in the center marks the locations of the barracks and main lawn.
Clearly visible are the lines
of tall pines lining the path from the fountain to the NE corner of
Microsoft Maps - Maps with high resolution images of the camp today.
Film footage from
Pennsylvania CCC camps that includes the Pine Grove Furnace Camp
S-51-PA is now available online at the
Detailed Army Map with key to buildings
Map of POW Camp Pine Grove by Rex F. Waite
from Salt Lake City drawn from memory many years later with a lot of
inaccuracies and reproduced from the Shippensburg, PA, News Chronicle,
June 28, 1993.
WAITE REX F. B. 6/15/1917 D. 7/29/1986 (Syracuse)
Smith's detailed Army Map with key to buildings
Four of the paintings
done by POWs on the barrack walls still survive in the new Michaux
Lodge at the
The following cards
are from a third set with a different style of captioning.
The church camp
enlarged the pool, put in a sand bottom, sluiceways to channel Toms
Run around the pool, concrete walls and a diving board
sometime in the very early 1950's. The sluiceways formed a "Y"
with Tom's Run about 100 yards upstream from the pool. One sluiceway
channeled the Run and emptied back in to the stream bed below the spillway
of the dam. The other sluiceway entered the pool at the opposite end
from the dam. There were slots in the walls of the base of the
"Y" so boards could be put in to control how much water went up
each arm .You can see these sluices in the photo of the "new'
pool." - Dave Robinson (See letters below.)
This expensive project was only used for three or four years till
the final modern pool, pictured below, was built in 1954.
pictures below are from my faded 1959-61 slides. Scanned to digital
images taken in 2001 / 2002. Color film was expensive for a high school student so I used some cheep
ANSCO film which has faded.
Located on the north side of the main camp road about 150' from the entrance gate. It seems to have been constructed at the end of the POW era since it lists the date the POW camp was closed and contains the emblem of "The Third Service Corps" which ran the camp. The squares may have been just decoration or once contained other emblems that have been removed.
The marker is now one of the few identifiable
remnants. Note that the shrubs are now trees and the
marker has sunken into the ground! In a few years it to will
probably be totally overgrown.
Showing construction details of the barracks. Choir practice was held here and the director taught us to sing "Let Us Break Bread Together" as 'When I fall on my face with my knees to the rising sun' - which is impossible to unlearn! Due to decay, the Chapel was torn down about 1970 and their are no remains.
Looking south towards dinning hall. The Chapel was one of the CCC
and POW barracks but had new siding and entrance added. The
height of the trees can help establish the relative dates of pictures of
The diving board mounts at the end of the swimming pool that is now a swampy pond. It is one of the largest remaining features but the hardest to find!
The "Pavilion" and "The Steps to Nowhere" are out of the picture to the left. The chapel is the building in the right background. Pool was completed in 1954.
A 2009 "walker" says that he
checked the direction and it is dead on true north. Magnetic
compasses have a 10 deg. declination at the camp.
If you stand at the fountain and walk up into the clearing to the NW (see picture above), you can still find the "star" down the hill from the flag poll. Walk to the west to find the footers for the upper barracks. Past the barracks, the pool is down the hill and the pavilion is below the Upper Service road.
Looking north-west from main road. You can still locate the remains of three guard towers which will be four concrete blocks about 8' apart. One is located near the fountain and the other further up the hill near the service road.
The steps where the group photos were taken can be found between the Pavilion floor and the Upper Service Road. They are so overgrown that they are easy to miss. The are just below the sign for the sign for the NWRF nursery north of the upper service road..
The wall still stands but was completely hidden by massive pine trees for many years! The area was cleared by the PA DCNR in the spring of 2011 It is located just north of the AT as it cuts across from Michaux Road to Bunkerhill Road.
In 2009 the scrub has been cleared out and the trees trimmed but the wall is cracking and in danger of collapse.
The chimney is connected to the old metal stove shown in the foreground of the adjacent picture. Remains of the concrete basketball court can be found behind the Recreation Center.
Here were displayed the best examples of the
POW artwork on the walls. They were originally painted on the
fiber board walls of the barracks and were removed and framed.
Many were landscapes from Germany but some were of American
you have any pictures?
They say it takes a minute to find a special person,
An hour to appreciate them, a day to love them, and
then an entire life to forget them.
Presbyterian State Wide Youth Leadership Conference 1961 Aug 2-27?
(Wrong dates since it was only a one week camp.)
This is my camp picture the last year I was there.
I'll be glad to e-mail you a CD with all the group pictures I have collected.
If you have any group shots, please scan them and send them to me.
The brochure was reproduced from a copy that was sent to me by J. G. - Oct 2003
Camp Michaux Reunion
- Saturday June 19, 2004.
Also present was Lisa John, who at the time was a state park ranger working on a brochure and walking trail of the camp. The park office had a great collection of photographs from the CCC and POW eras.
We were able to locate the base of the CCC flag pole which is an "arrow" pointing true north with a lightning rod grounding cable still visible. It can be found directly above the fountain in the middle of the parallel row of pine trees. The shadow of the CCC flagpole in the center photo marks it's location. Note the path that runs to the log cabin that would later become the POW guard house. The paths were all rerouted for the POW camp. The path was relocated to run to the other log cabin by the upper gate off Michaux Road. This is were the trail of pine trees now stands. Study the pictures of the CCC and POW camp above to see the differences.
The photo of the fountain was taken from the CCC
flag pole looking south.
The fountain in this picture seems to have a
lower wall that it does today. It must have be rebuilt at some
"Just to let you know Lee I will
soon be sending you a bunch of group pictures from when I was a camper
in the 60's and a staff person in '71 & '72. I absolutely
love your site...thanks so much for keeping Camp Michaux alive!"
Your surmise about the picture of the "old swimming hole" is correct. As I recall, the churches enlarged the pool, put in a sand bottom, sluiceways to channel in the water, concrete walls and a diving board sometime in the very early 1950's. The sluiceways formed a "Y" with Tom's Run about 100 yards upstream from the pool. One sluice channeled the Run and emptied back in to the stream bed below the spillway of the dam. The other sluice entered the pool at the side opposite the dam up toward the road. There were slots in the walls of the base of the "Y" so boards could be put in to control how much water went up each arm .You can see these sluices in the photo of the "new' pool.
I can remember going to Michaux with my Dad when he was director of camping for the Mercersburg Synod of the E & R church in the late 40's and early 50's. I seem to recall the old pool . By the time I was a camper in 1953, I believe we used the "new" pool. This is all from memory which is subject to failure as I get older but those are my impressions. There might be a way to check all this out. At the time, capital improvements to Michaux were not part of the operating budget for the camp and were paid for by the judicatories involved. If the records still exist, they might be found by contacting either the Carlisle Presbytery or Penn Central Conference of the UCC (at that time Mercersburg Synod of the Evangelical and Reformed Church) to see if they have any record of capital expenditures in that time period.
I don't recall the pump house in the location it appears in the postcard picture. There was a pump house to the left of the "new" pool as you faced it from the dining hall. It was between the pool and the incinerator and new office building. As far as I can remember, it had an inlet in the pool and was used only for pumping water through the fire fighting system. The building housed a pump with a 6 cylinder car motor that I can remember Bill Hockley firing up when we did fire drills. We accused him of goosing the pressure up on the pump to see how many of us crew members he could knock over as we held the fire hose. By the way, we used to enjoy those fire drills as it gave us a chance to take the old fire engine out for a spin. Sometimes we got halfway to Caledonia since we wanted to make sure the battery got a good charge. And of course we had to make sure the siren still worked.
About the water supply, you are correct about it being
at the upper dam on Tom's Creek. When I was there, there was an intake
structure on the left hand side of the creek as you face the dam about
30 or 40 feet upstream from the dam. As I recall it, it was just a
square concrete box about 2 or 3 feet on a side with openings in it to
let the water in. I don't know when it was built. As I said, I don't
remember where the pump house was since I was not involved with that
part of the operation of the camp but I do remember the intake. It is
quite possible the water supply pump was in the building with the fire
pump and I just didn't pay any attention to it. As far as the tanks
go, at the time I was working there from 1958 to 1970 there was only
one water tank that I know of. It was located on the uphill side of
I still enjoy visiting your web site to see if there
is anything newt. Thank you for taking on this labor of love.
You've brought back a part of my
past. Bless you.
Other Information About the Camp
E-mail from GLZ at Michaux State Forest office:
A SHORT HISTORY OF CAMP MICHAUX
Other Articles and Publications
POW pays nostalgic visit
POWs In Westminster"
Open house at Pine
German Prisoners of World War 2 - English version
News Updates From Dave Smith
Dear Friends of Camp Michaux, April 27 work day
Yesterday was a perfect day for working at Camp Michaux. Pat and Carl Leinbach, Vince Montano and I worked on reclearing and then expanding the cleared area at the Forestry Office/Interrogation Building/Michaux Lodge site. The work yesterday underscored the need to address the issues of invasive species and control of them with chemicals. I will discuss this issue further with Roy Brubaker, District Forester.
Issues with minor vandalism to the marker posts continue. Two of the posts locate close to each other had been switched, and one of the new posts installed at the beginning of the month was turned upside down. We didn't reinstall the directional post removed (but found) earlier this spring. It is apparently necessary to use concrete in some of the post holes. I will try to do that this week.
Thanks to all who helped this year. Vince and I toured the camp in the afternoon and identified potential sites for next year's work.
Have a great summer.
April 20, 2012
Smith's Poster about the camp
Professor Maria Bruno had the archeology students work in three groups. One group mapped an area on the south of the camp
looking for evidence of native American use of the area. In particular the students were looking for rhyolite
(used for tool making). Retired geology professor Noel Potter accompanied the group. No specific rhyolite finds were made,
but the students encountered and mapped two charcoal hearths. The second group focused on the middle of the camp
in the area between the main mess hall and the German POW mess hall. Several items were found on the surface. The third group focused on the farm area on the east end of the camp. A variety of surface finds were located, photographed,
and removed for cataloging.
April 13 Weekend
Thanks to Josh, Pat, Paul, Andre, Gary, VInce and Dan for joining me today for a great work day at Camp Michaux. We accomplished extensive additional clearing at the farm house. You can almost picture the building that once stood there. In the afternoon Gary, Vince and Josh cleared the old CCC gas pumping station for the first time. We knew where it was, but getting to it was quite difficult. Having it cleared adds one more location to view. I had six people on my 1:00 tour of the camp.
Looking ahead to next week, the archeology class will be there, so if you want to see archeology in action, come out between 8:30 and 12:30. Any of you who can come to work, we will select a site away from where the students are working and do additional clearing.
The wooden post with a directional arrow near the farmhouse has again been removed. This time we couldn't locate it and the person who removed it carefully disguised the post hole after removing the post. I hope this is the full extent of the vandalism although I found several posts had been realigned so it would be difficult for people following the self-guided tour to locate them.
On a final note, I revised the walking tour guidebook this week. I hope to have it posted on line at the CCHS website this coming week. The revised version corrects information in the original that needed changing based on evidence located since 2011 and includes the new optional trail to the water tanks.
April 6 Weekend
Josh Capp and I were a small but effective work crew yesterday at Camp Michaux. We installed three new post markers along the extension of the trail to the water tanks, cleared the steps near the CCC Education Building, and cleared an area to the west of the farm house in hopes of locating a well, cistern or outhouse. We didn't locate any of those features but did uncover a stone and concrete path. Also found were a horse shoe and the broken top of a 19th century bottle. I will be updating the walking tour book that is posted on line so that those interested can access the new section of trail.
While walking around the camp we found our first evidence of vandalism. Those of you familiar with the posts installed two years ago know that in addition to the 27 numbered posts (now 30), there were three posts with arrow markers indicating a change in direction of the trail. We found two of those three posts had been removed. Josh spotted one of them along the side of the trail and we reinstalled it. The other one near the German prisoner's mess hall was not found. Fortunately, all the other posts are still in place.
March 10, 2012
I did a walk through the camp this morning and am
happy to report that the Michaux State Forest staff has been busy again
at the camp. The deteriorating CCC sign has been either fully restored
or replaced and a protective roof placed over it. A similar protective
roof now covers the Camp Michaux sign as well. A new sign designates the
barn wall and protective coverings have been placed over the two signs
giving credit to the South Mountain partnership. Thank you Roy and crew.
National Register - the nomination for the National Register was returned with a long list of required changes. I plan to continue to work on it over the coming months, but since there is no deadline, and the changes require additional research and an entire new set of photographs and maps, I am going to approach it more slowly than I did the first submission.
John Bland - the
author of The Secret War at Home... has moved to Texas. Before
leaving, he turned all his files over to the Historical Society. I
am now continuing his work to enter all the names of the prisoners in a
database. The list now contains 4000 names up to the end of
October 1944. That leaves the remainder of 1944 to complete and
all of 1945. As with the nomination, I will work on it a slow
pace. CCC sign - the official
CCC sign at the camp is deteriorating. I am trying to find out who
is responsible for the sign. I am hoping it can be repaired.
If any of you have any ideas regarding who may be the appropriate
contact regarding this, let me know.
March 18, 2011
April 16, 2011 - Hi Friends
of Camp Michaux,
April 25, 2011 - Hi Friends
of Camp Michaux,
Thanks again for everyone's help. David Smith
David L. Smith
Grove Furnace State Park
The Pine Grove Furnace Camp Store is a welcome retreat at the midway point of the AT to rest and dine. Six to ten people each week complete the store's challenge -- to eat a half gallon of Hershey's Ice Cream at one sitting! Stop here for lunch on the porch when you visit the area. We had only two scoops of Moose Tracks
The Furnace at Pine Grove is one of the best preserved in the state. The furnaces to the south such as those in Caledonia State Park were destroyed by Gen. Early's Confederate troops as they marched on Gettysburg. Also see the Cornwall Iron Furnace
History of Pine Grove Furnace
In 1764, George Stevenson, Robert
Thornburgh, and John Arthur built the first iron furnace at Pine Grove,
which they enlarged in 1770. The furnace manufactured cast iron products
like, ten plate stoves, fireplace backs and iron kettles. In 1782,
Michael Ege purchased the furnace, iron mine, mill and mill house. By
his death in 1803, Michael was the sole owner of the Pine Grove
ironworks and two other ironworks in the area.
His son, Peter, became the Pine Grove Furnace iron master and from 1827 to 1829 built a stately brick English Tudor mansion, currently the A.Y.H. Hostel. In 1830, Peter added Laurel Forge to the ironworks. With six fires, runouts and trip hammer, Laurel Forge could produce 2,000 net tons of blooms a year. Laurel Forge reheated and hammered the cast iron ingots from Pine Grove Furnace to produce wrought iron, a product that could be bent in many shapes.
The financial panic of 1837 bankrupted tens of thousands of Americans including Peter Ege. At a sheriff’s sale the following year, 37-year old Frederick Watts, later to be known as the father of Pennsylvania State University, and his partner, Charles B. Penrose, purchased Pine Grove Iron Works for $52,000.
In 1864, the ironworks changed to a corporation. A group of investors formed the South Mountain Iron Company and brought in Jackson C. Fuller as the furnace manager. The new iron company also began construction of the South Mountain Railroad to bring raw materials to the furnace and move its iron products to market.
Jackson was a life long friend of the chief investor, Jay Cooke, who is credited with almost single handedly financing the Union’s efforts in the Civil War with the concept of selling war bonds to the public. Jay Cooke found himself deep in debt and went bankrupt, causing the financial panic of 1873. It took the federal government nine years to recover from Cooke’s financial failure.
In 1877, through his friend Jackson, Jay Cooke bought back the ironworks portion of the old company at sheriff’s sale under the newly created corporation called the South Mountain Mining and Iron Company. The Cumberland Valley Railroad bought the other half of the old South Mountain Railroad. Throughout the winter of 1878, the iron furnace went through a total renovation raising the stack to 36 feet with closed bell and hopper on top, a steam hoist to raise raw material to the top of the new stack and three tuyeres to force air into the furnace with the new steam blowing engine which replaced the old blowing tubs.
These innovations allowed the furnace to operate on fuels other than charcoal, which was becoming harder to secure due to constant harvesting of the forests. Now the furnace could be operated on coke and when that was low, anthracite coal could be mixed with the coke. Charcoal would remain the primary fuel of the furnace, but the furnace would no longer have to shutdown when charcoal supplies were exhausted. 1883 marked the peak production year for the furnace, producing 6,000 net tons of cast iron annually, but new technologies quickly put small iron producers out of business.
Pine Grove Furnace went out of blast for the final time in 1895, ending 131 years of iron making in South Mountain.Pine Grove Furnace State Park
In 1913, the South Mountain Mining and Iron Company sold the ironworks, encompassing 17,000 acres, to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to be part of the new Forest Reserve system. Much of the land became Michaux State Forest, but part became Pine Grove Furnace State Park.
Some of the historic buildings dating back to the charcoal iron community still stand and include the furnace, ironmaster’s mansion, clerks office, stable, grist mill (now the Visitor Center), the inn (now the park office) and several residences. Remnants of raceways, charcoal hearths and related man-made features are still discernible.
Fuller Lake was the major ore quarry for Pine Grove Furnace. The quarry filled with groundwater when mining ceased. Laurel Lake once supplied water power to Laurel Forge.
In 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) established Camp S-51. The CCC boys built roads, trails and facilities until 1941.
In 1977, Pine Grove Furnace was entered in the National Register of Historical Places.